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Force_Majeure

UOAF Landing Procedures - New Working SOP's

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For nearly five years UOAF has not standardized the way we approach and land on airfields. There have been many, many incidents where people have landed on wrong runways or on the opposite end, causing crashes and hazards that are frankly embarrassing and should not happen in a milsim type environment that UOAF provides. After today's flight I spent a few hours to put into words pretty much all of the Air Force training I have received so far on pattern work.

 

The military pattern, otherwise known as the overhead break, is the standard for all USAF fighter operations. It looks great on camera, but primarily, it's designed to deconflict and get planes on the ground as soon as possible

 

The following document is mandatory reading for all active UOAF pilots and aviation enthusiasts in general. This will not be a hardline SOP because it requires training and practice to follow the procedures, but the contents of this document will become a new standard to follow for our events. When I have time, I will convert the contents of this document to the forums and appropriate UOAF wiki's.

 

NEW WORKING SOP'S DOWNLOAD, UOAF_Landing_Procedures_v1.pdf

 

 

vHzHQ05.jpg

 

Force

Edited by Force_Majeure

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Downloading now for study. I know I have masses to learn to catch up with you guys but certainly up for the challenge!

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We should set some time aside to practice this. I think it's a good thing to do, and I love the document...but asking all our pilots and flight leads to implement this blind, mid mission, may be hectic. At the very least our more regular flight leads should probably get some practice in at some point :)

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just one clarification about the initial/offset entries. Do we go for initial whenever our inbound heading is within +-90° of runway heading, and opt for an offset direct into downwind otherwise? (e.g. coming in for rwy 08 with a heading of say 300) and if so, i take it an offset entry doesn't really imply a break turn but rather flowing directly into the pattern in trail, correct?

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Honestly, for what we are doing, always enter at initial. Entering via a designated entry point is really only used when flying into an uncontrolled or auxiliary airport. Aircraft IRL simply do not fly to initial as they please, they will either follow radar vectors or fly a published approach to get there.

 

For UOAF's purposes, if you are coming in from the opposite direction of the runway, begin a descent and aim to be about 6-10nm downwind from the runway threshold. Then, simply turn your aircraft so you are aligned with the runway and descend once you hit initial. In short, do whatever it takes to be at initial at 3,000 AGL and lined up with the runway.

 

Force

Edited by Force_Majeure

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Finally.  This is good stuff Force - I think once people get used to it, they will realize how versatile the overhead pattern is.  You can literally fix any energy error, to include running our of gas, with a proper overhead pattern. 

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Been practising - final turn will take more practice as I always end up too steep or too shallow a turn needing some last minute adjustment but do get down ok.  Also a little tricky judging where to break as runway disappears under the nose - however if I am no 4 for example I just count the specified seconds after no 3 breaks.

 

Shame I am away this weekend so cannot see how it goes in a mission - then perhaps not a shame as probably night still!

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Been practising - final turn will take more practice as I always end up too steep or too shallow a turn needing some last minute adjustment but do get down ok.  Also a little tricky judging where to break as runway disappears under the nose - however if I am no 4 for example I just count the specified seconds after no 3 breaks.

 

Shame I am away this weekend so cannot see how it goes in a mission - then perhaps not a shame as probably night still!

 

 

Honestly its not really that scientifc in the real world.  Typically one of two ways:  First is to just look over the rail at the ground.  The visibility in the "Jet" is way better than what BMS shows.  If thats not an option you like, then you can do another method (we use it in heavies where we dont have good cockpit visibility like the pointy nose jets)  where you pick an "offset aimpoint".   Basically find a landmark that is "abeam" (offset from the runway but perpendicular) the desired point.  You turn your head and when you are aligned with that reference point then start your break turn.  

 

Its very easy to correct issues in the pattern.  It is not a fixed exact ground track youre trying to fly.  You are flying to a desired "energy state",  Meaning if the winds are overshooting, youll fly a wider down wind.  If for some reason you need a longer final, extend your downwind/perch point.  You make the corrections to the pattern as needed (within reason) to put your jet in a safe position to land about 300 AGL and 1 NM from the end of the runway.  If you mess up the pattern, execute a break out.  Clear for other traffic, climb above the pattern and fly a deconflicted path back to initial to try it again.  Real world the rules are more specific and strict, but in a nutshell thats how it works. 

Edited by bigwebs

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Honestly, for what we are doing, always enter at initial. Entering via a designated entry point is really only used when flying into an uncontrolled or auxiliary airport. Aircraft IRL simply do not fly to initial as they please, they will either follow radar vectors or fly a published approach to get there.

 

For UOAF's purposes, if you are coming in from the opposite direction of the runway, begin a descent and aim to be about 6-10nm downwind from the runway threshold. Then, simply turn your aircraft so you are aligned with the runway and descend once you hit initial. In short, do whatever it takes to be at initial at 3,000 AGL and lined up with the runway.

 

Force

Bump for this - there is such thing as "outside" downwind to handle the scenario Chris is talking about, but like Force said, just deconflict and get to initial pointed in the right direction.  Typically IRL we get cleared  by ATC for a "visual approach" to enter initial.  Meaning you figure out how to manuever your jet to be at intial going the right direction at the speed/alt specified for the field (they can vary slightly).

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Some basic math helps this as well to give you a starting point from where to adjust from.  Especially when it comes to staying on the proper descent path.   In general youre going to want be configured for landing at your perch point.  This is a matter of safety (good airmenship).  If you fly a 2 NM offset (downwind) from the runway, when abeam the touch down point extend for 60 seconds before perching.  At 180KIAS this will eat up 3NM distance.  Perch at the 60 second point and put the flight path marker on your 3 deg reference line in the hud.  The turn to final will eat up 3NM of distance roughly -  conveniently at 180kias this will be a little under a 2 g turn since youre descending.  This means you should roll out on final (no wind) 3NM from the runway at 900ft AGL (aka on glide path).  

 

If you need tighter patterns, you can perch earlier, but realize it will neccissitate you lowering the nose more in the final turn, and cause a higher descent rate.  This can get dangerous.  F16 pilots have been killed in the final turn.

 

 

"No wind day"

2NM Offset on downwind

Perch @180KIAS and 2000AGL 30 seconds past abeam touchdown point (gear down).

FPM on the 3 deg ref line

2 G turn - power to maintain speed in the turn

 

If All goes well, you should rollout on final configured, on speed, on glide path. 3NM (60 seconds) from the touchdown point.  

 

Someone double check my math.

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Very nice document, Force.

I should dust off the ol' Warthog some day and start practising again.

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